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Glossary

The IPBES core glossary provides a standard definition for important terms of broad applicability to IPBES outputs. This core glossary does not replace the assessment-specific glossaries, but is complementary to them. It was developed by a glossary committee established for this purpose.

Biennial

See "annual".

Bio-technical stabilization

A method for mitigating land degradation using mechanical (structures) and biological elements to prevent severe erosion.

Biochar

Charcoal made from biomass via pyrolysis and used for soil improvement.

Biocultural diversity

The diversity exhibited by interacting natural systems and human cultures. The concept rests on three propositions: firstly, that the diversity of life includes human cultures and languages; secondly, that links exist between biodiversity and human cultural diversity; and finally, that these links have developed over time through mutual adaptation and possibly co-evolution between humans, plants and animals.

Biocultural refugia

Places where relict (formerly more widespread or abundant) species have found shelter during periods of stress, and that also contain a diversity of human knowledge and experiences, value and belief systems.

Biodiversity

The variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part. This includes variation in genetic, phenotypic, phylogenetic, and functional attributes, as well as changes in abundance and distribution over time and space within and among species, biological communities and ecosystems.

Biodiversity hotspot

A generic term for an area high in such biodiversity attributes as species richness or endemism. It may also be used in assessments as a precise term applied to geographic areas defined according to two criteria: (i) containing at least 1,500 species of the world's 300,000 vascular plant species as endemics, and (ii) being under threat, in having lost 70% of its primary vegetation.

Biodiversity loss

The reduction of any aspect of biological diversity (i.e. diversity at the genetic, species and ecosystem levels) is lost in a particular area through death (including extinction), destruction or manual removal; it can refer to many scales, from global extinctions to population extinctions, resulting in decreased total diversity at the same scale.

Biodiversity offset

A biodiversity offset is a tool proposed by developers and planners for compensating for the loss of biodiversity in one place by biodiversity gains in another.

Biofuel

Fuel made from biomass.

Biomass

The mass of non-fossilized and biodegradable organic material originating from plants, animals and micro-organisms in a given area or volume.

Biome

Biomes are global-scale zones, generally defined by the type of plant life that they support in response to average rainfall and temperature patterns. For example, tundra, coral reefs or savannas.

Biosphere

The sum of all the ecosystems of the world. It is both the collection of organisms living on the Earth and the space that they occupy on part of the Earth’s crust (the lithosphere), in the oceans (the hydrosphere) and in the atmosphere. The biosphere is all the planet’s ecosystems.

Biota

All living organisms of an area; the flora and fauna considered as a unit .

Bureau

The IPBES Bureau is a subsidiary body established by the Plenary which carries out the governance functions of the Platform. It is made up of representatives nominated from each of the United Nations regions, and is chaired by the Chair of IPBES.

Bushmeat

Meat for human consumption derived from wild animals.

Bushmeat hunting

Bushmeat (or wild meat) hunting is a form of hunting that entails the harvesting of wild animals for food and for non-food purposes, including for medicinal use.

Bycatch

The commercially undesirable species caught during a fishing process.

Calibration (of models)

The use of observations, or in some cases a reference model, during model development to ensure that the model output compares favourably with the properties of the system being modelled.

Cap-and-trade

An economic policy instrument in which the State sets an overall environmental target (the cap) and assigns environmental impact allowances (or quotas) to actors that they can trade among each other.

Capacity-building (or development)

Defined by the United Nations Development Programme as “the process through which individuals, organisations and societies obtain, strengthen and maintain their capabilities to set and achieve their own development objectives over time”. IPBES promotes and facilitates capacity-building, to improve the capacity of countries to make informed policy decisions on biodiversity and ecosystem services.

Carbon cycle

The carbon cycle is the process by which carbon is exchanged among the ecosystems of the Earth.

Carbon footprint

A measure of the total amount of carbon dioxide emissions, including carbon dioxide equivalents, that is directly and indirectly caused by an activity or is accumulated over the life stages of a product.

Carbon sequestration

The long-term storage of carbon in plants, soils, geologic formations, and the ocean. Carbon sequestration occurs both naturally and as a result of anthropogenic activities and typically refers to the storage of carbon that has the immediate potential to become carbon dioxide gas.

Carbon storage

The biological process by which carbon in the form carbon dioxide is taken up from the atmosphere and incorporated through photosynthesis into different compartments of ecosystems, such as biomass, wood, or soil organic carbon. Also, the technological process of capturing waste carbon dioxide from industry or power generation, and storing it so that it will not enter the atmosphere.

Carbon-lock-in phase

Refers to the tendency for certain carbon-intensive technological systems to persist over time, ‘locking out’ lower-carbon alternatives, and owing to a combination of linked technical, economic, and institutional factors.

Carrying capacity

In ecology, the carrying capacity of a species in an environment is the maximum population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely. The term is also used more generally to refer to the upper limit of habitats, ecosystems, landscapes, waterscapes or seascapes to provide tangible and intangible goods and services (including aesthetic and spiritual services) in a sustainable way.

Catalogue of policy support tools and methodologies

The IPBES catalogue of policy support tools and methodologies is an evolving online resource with two main goals. The first goal is to enable decision makers to gain easy access to information on policy support tools and methodologies to better inform and assist the different phases of policy-making and implementation. The second goal is to allow a range of users to provide input to the catalogue and assess the usability of tools and methodologies in their specific contexts, including resources required and types of outputs that can be obtained, thus helping to identify and bridge gaps with respect to available tools and methodologies.

Certainty

In the context of IPBES, the summary terms to describe the state of knowledge are the following:

  • Well established (Certainty term (q.v.)): comprehensive meta-analysis or other synthesis or multiple independent studies that agree.
  • Established but incomplete (Certainty term (q.v.)): general agreement although only a limited number of studies exist but no comprehensive synthesis and, or the studies that exist imprecisely address the question.
  • Unresolved (Certainty term (q.v.)):  multiple independent studies exist but conclusions do not agree.
  • Inconclusive (Certainty term (q.v.)): limited evidence, recognising major knowledge gaps.

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Chemosynthesis

Synthesis of organic compounds (as in living cells) by energy derived from inorganic chemical reactions.

Climate change

As defined in Article 1 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, "a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods".

Co-management

Process of management in which government shares power with resource users, with each given specific rights and responsibilities relating to information and decision-making.

Co-production

In the context of the IPBES conceptual framework, this is the joint contribution by nature and anthropogenic assets in generating nature’s contributions to people.

Community-based natural resource management

Community-based natural resource management: an approach to natural resource management that involves the full participation of indigenous peoples’ and local communities and resource users in decision-making activities, and the incorporation of local institutions, customary practices, and knowledge systems in management, regulatory, and enforcement processes. Under this approach, community-based monitoring and information systems are initiatives by indigenous peoples and local community organisations to monitor their community’s well-being and the state of their territories and natural resources, applying a mix of traditional knowledge and innovative tools and approaches.

Conservation agriculture

Approach to managing agro-ecosystems for improved and sustained productivity, increased profits and food security while preserving and enhancing the resource base and the environment. It is characterized by three linked principles, namely: 1) continuous minimum mechanical soil disturbance; 2) permanent organic soil cover; and 3) diversification of crop species grown in sequences and/or associations. This covers a wide range of approaches from minimum till to permaculture/”mimicking nature”.

Consumer surplus

The difference between the total amount that consumers are willing and able to pay for a good or service (indicated by the demand curve) and the total amount that they actually do pay (i.e. the market price), or the difference between the consumers' willingness to pay for a commodity and the actual price (equilibrium price) they pay.