Marine resource management
A wide range of approaches are currently used to manage marine resources. These include centralized approaches (e.g. ocean zoning, limiting ocean access through permits or the establishment of marine protected areas, regulating gear use or species harvested, or enforcing fish catch limits) and community-based approaches and informal or traditional management regimes, as well as a hybrid of techniques dependent on local social-ecological contexts. Although marine resource management is often viewed as a field that is rooted in the biophysical sciences, it is fundamentally a politically and culturally driven process, shaped by human livelihoods and perceptions, where notions of both space and place shape policies and decision-making in fundamental ways (Levine, Richmond, and Lopez-Carr, 2015).