In the context of IPBES, the summary terms to describe the state of knowledge are the following:
- Well established (Certainty term (q.v.)): comprehensive meta-analysis or other synthesis or multiple independent studies that agree.
- Established but incomplete (Certainty term (q.v.)): general agreement although only a limited number of studies exist but no comprehensive synthesis and, or the studies that exist imprecisely address the question.
- Unresolved (Certainty term (q.v.)): multiple independent studies exist but conclusions do not agree.
- Inconclusive (Certainty term (q.v.)): limited evidence, recognising major knowledge gaps.
[placeholder two-way matrix]