By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced.

DNDC DeNitrification-DeComposition

DNDC is a computer simulation model of carbon and nitrogen biogeochemistry in agro-ecosystems. The model can be used for predicting crop growth, soil temperature and moisture, carbon dynamics, nitrogen leaching, and trace gases emissions. 

The DNDC model can assess the soil matter turnover, which can indirectly indicate the state of degradation. It is a point-scale model and can be extrapolated to large spatial extents using remote sensing and GIS approaches.


The HYDRUS computer software packages simulate the one-, two- or three- dimensional movement of water, heat and multiple solutes in variably saturated media. The program numerically solves the Richards' equation for saturated-unsaturated water flow and Fickian-based advection dispersion equations for heat and solute transport. The Flow equation incorporates a sink term to account for water uptake by plant roots. The Heat transport equation considers conduction as well as convection with flowing water.

Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE)

RUSLE helps assess land degradation through soil related measures. RUSLE estimates long-term annual soil loss due to erosion across different land uses and land management activities.

The RUSLE equation, developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, estimates average annual soil erosion as follows: A = R*K*L*S*C*P

A = average annual soil loss

R = rainfall erosivity

K = soil erodibility

L = slope length

S = slope

C = cropping

P = conservation practice

Multi-scale integrated models of ecosystem services (MIMES)

MIMES is an ecosystem-based management tool. It integrates georeferenced datasets, with diverse information sources on human and natural systems to create systems models. These systems models assess the value of ecosystem services at different spatial levels under different future scenarios. These are bespoke models for particular cases.

The MIMES approach has been applied in New Zealand and Massachusetts. It is also under development for use by the Ministry of Fisheries in Cambodia in managing the Tonle Sap Lake. 

Protected Planet

Protected Planet is the online visual interface for the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA), a joint project of IUCN and UN Environment. The visual interface combines governmental, expert and general public opinions on protected areas. Protected Planet is the most up to date and complete source of information on protected areas. It is updated monthly with submissions from governments, non-governmental organizations, landowners and communities.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ is the most comprehensive, objective database of the global conservation status of species. It evaluates the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. The IUCN aims to have each species re-evaluated in a peer reviewed manner every five years if possible, or at least every ten years. It provides information about range, population size, habitat and ecology, use, trade, threats, and conservation actions.

Non-Timber Forest Products Exchange Programme

The Non-Timber Forest Products Exchange Programme (NTFP-EP) in South and Southeast Asia empowers forestry-based communities to manage forest resources in a sustainable manner. To this end, the NTFP-EP catalyses and supports activities that strengthen the capacity of their partner organisations in their work with forest-dependent communities, particularly indigenous peoples.